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Please contact us at edunomics@georgetown.edu for accessible versions of these resources.

What will the financial turmoil mean for public education?

2020-05-29T20:06:37+00:00

In this webinar series, Marguerite Roza shares what we are learning as the financial outlook for public education evolves and implications for states and districts as they make financial plans for the coming weeks and year.


What will the financial turmoil mean for public education?2020-05-29T20:06:37+00:00

Straight Talk In Financially Uncertain Times: How District Leaders Can Communicate About The Messy Financial Landscape Coming Their Way

2020-05-22T23:41:26+00:00

In this guest blog post, Laura Anderson and Marguerite Roza share how district leaders can best communicate financial decisions to their staff and communities in order to build trust.


Straight Talk In Financially Uncertain Times: How District Leaders Can Communicate About The Messy Financial Landscape Coming Their Way2020-05-22T23:41:26+00:00

How Lawmakers Can Raise Teacher Pay Without Decimating Pension Funds

2020-05-22T23:43:15+00:00

In this op-ed, Marguerite Roza analyzes how making any near-term teacher raises non-pensionable could impact state governments and K-12 teachers and students.


How Lawmakers Can Raise Teacher Pay Without Decimating Pension Funds2020-05-22T23:43:15+00:00

Waiting for Congress to Bail Out Schools Is a Risky Game of Chicken. Time for Districts to Come Up With Plan B — and for States to Help

2020-05-13T23:59:09+00:00

In this commentary published by The 74, Marguerite Roza worries that a $200 billion ask for a federal bailout for schools seems to be an incomplete strategy, and argues that districts need to work now on the cost side of the equation as well.


Waiting for Congress to Bail Out Schools Is a Risky Game of Chicken. Time for Districts to Come Up With Plan B — and for States to Help2020-05-13T23:59:09+00:00

A free college plan that pays for itself

2020-05-13T23:38:49+00:00

In this op ed published by The Hill, Marguerite Roza proposes a way for the federal government to pay for college without boosting federal debt or burdening taxpayers.


A free college plan that pays for itself2020-05-13T23:38:49+00:00

New Financial Data Spotlight the District Role in Distributing Dollars Across Schools

2020-04-29T20:48:42+00:00

In this Education Next article, Marguerite Roza and Laura Anderson share what we’re learning from early explorations of the data and the opportunities it provides for education leaders.


New Financial Data Spotlight the District Role in Distributing Dollars Across Schools2020-04-29T20:48:42+00:00

How the coronavirus shutdown will affect school district revenues

2020-04-20T18:06:03+00:00

In this Brookings Chalkboard blog, Marguerite Roza discusses what a larger state role in education funding means for districts during an economic downturn.


How the coronavirus shutdown will affect school district revenues2020-04-20T18:06:03+00:00

How States Can Put Students at the Center of Their School Funding Formulas

2020-04-14T00:03:54+00:00

In this Hunt Institute "Making Sense of NC School Funding" blog, Marguerite Roza provides a national perspective on how states approach school funding.


How States Can Put Students at the Center of Their School Funding Formulas2020-04-14T00:03:54+00:00

The Big Bet on Adding Staff to Improve Schools Is Breaking the Bank

2020-03-16T22:25:45+00:00

By going all-in on staffing, we’ve crowded out other potential investments­ that can positively impact student learning. In this paper, Marguerite Roza writes that competing strategies should be viewed through the lens of which can do the most for students with the limited dollars at hand.


The Big Bet on Adding Staff to Improve Schools Is Breaking the Bank2020-03-16T22:25:45+00:00

Edunomics Lab against the tide: Yes, eliminate CRDC finance elements

2020-04-14T00:04:40+00:00

When the U.S. Department of Education proposed significant changes to the Civil Rights Data Collection, we broke with many of our peer organizations to write in support of eliminating the school finance portion.


Edunomics Lab against the tide: Yes, eliminate CRDC finance elements2020-04-14T00:04:40+00:00

Leaders Ignored Teacher Pension Debt. Now There’s Less Money for Teacher Salaries and Students

2020-04-17T03:02:56+00:00

This brief quantifies, in per pupil and per teacher terms, the magnitude of the crowd-out that pension debt creates for six states: CA, IL, LA, SC, TX, and VT. The goal is to help education leaders grasp the relationship between their pension debt bills and their aspirations for spending on schooling inputs, including teacher salaries.


Leaders Ignored Teacher Pension Debt. Now There’s Less Money for Teacher Salaries and Students2020-04-17T03:02:56+00:00

Chicago’s Teachers Union Agreed to Give Spending Control to Principals. Now, the Union Is Striking to Take It Away

2020-04-14T00:12:07+00:00

Chicago teacher contract negotiations stalled over who controls staffing decisions in schools. In this commentary, Marguerite Roza explains why principals should be entrusted to make the spending decisions that best serve their students.


Chicago’s Teachers Union Agreed to Give Spending Control to Principals. Now, the Union Is Striking to Take It Away2020-04-14T00:12:07+00:00

The “Would You Rather?” Test

2020-03-16T22:31:39+00:00

Education spending always involves choices, and smart choices require understanding value for the dollar. This paper uses the "would you rather" exercise to explore tradeoffs in school spending and think through the value of various cost-equivalent investments.


The “Would You Rather?” Test2020-03-16T22:31:39+00:00

A Guide for SEA-led Resource Allocation Reviews. Appendix 1: Sample Data Report

2020-04-17T03:09:02+00:00

Resource allocation reviews (RARs) in districts that serve low-performing schools offer a new opportunity to examine the connection between resource allocation and academic outcomes. This sample data report is an example of what state leaders can assemble and share with district leaders.


A Guide for SEA-led Resource Allocation Reviews. Appendix 1: Sample Data Report2020-04-17T03:09:02+00:00

Funding for Students’ Sake: How to Stop Financing Tomorrow’s Schools Based on Yesterday’s Priorities

2020-03-16T23:05:02+00:00

Student-based allocation (also known as weighted student funding) provides the most equitable, efficient, and flexible path toward increased productivity. This brief explains why it is a good idea to allocate resources on the basis of students, and measures several states' progress toward doing so.


Funding for Students’ Sake: How to Stop Financing Tomorrow’s Schools Based on Yesterday’s Priorities2020-03-16T23:05:02+00:00

Webinar: The Changing Role of Education Finance Leadership

2020-04-17T03:07:40+00:00

This webinar explores connections and opportunities with ESSA's financial transparency requirement, the new Supplement-not-Supplant requirement for a district “resource allocation methodology” and “resource allocation reviews,” and what each means for states and districts.


Webinar: The Changing Role of Education Finance Leadership2020-04-17T03:07:40+00:00

Spending patterns, equity and achievement in districts using weighted student funding

2020-04-17T03:14:00+00:00

As part of a three-year study funded by Institute of Education Sciences, Edunomics Lab researchers assembled this dataset with base-level knowledge needed to categorize and test types of weighted student funding models.


Spending patterns, equity and achievement in districts using weighted student funding2020-04-17T03:14:00+00:00

A Way to Get School Finances Back Under Control

2020-03-17T02:49:39+00:00

This commentary lays out why it may be time for states to establish agencies modeled on the federal Government Accountability Office (GAO) to certify school district obligations before they take effect and push districts into financial crisis.


A Way to Get School Finances Back Under Control2020-03-17T02:49:39+00:00

Training School Leaders to Spend Wisely

2020-03-17T02:57:12+00:00

This article in Education Next shines a light on the pressing need to better support district and school leaders in their work on the spending side of the equation.


Training School Leaders to Spend Wisely2020-03-17T02:57:12+00:00

Understanding school finance is one thing. Being effective in communicating about it is another skill entirely

2020-03-17T03:01:12+00:00

This article provides tips for school, district, and state leaders to communicate effectively about school finance issues—whether the topic is a state funding formula, a local tax levy, teacher salaries, or spending on athletics—and build much-needed trust and understanding in the process.


Understanding school finance is one thing. Being effective in communicating about it is another skill entirely2020-03-17T03:01:12+00:00

L.A. District Is Asking for a $500 Million Parcel Tax. In Return, Let the Schools Decide How to Spend Their New Funds

2020-03-17T03:06:24+00:00

In this commentary The 74, Marguerite Roza and Anthony Drew note that many of the country’s largest school districts have shifted to a decentralized funding model, allocating funds to schools based on student needs, and boosting equity and transparency in the process. They urge LAUSD leaders to follow suit.


L.A. District Is Asking for a $500 Million Parcel Tax. In Return, Let the Schools Decide How to Spend Their New Funds2020-03-17T03:06:24+00:00

Weighted Student Funding Is On The Rise. Here’s What We Are Learning

2020-04-17T03:13:06+00:00

In this blog, Marguerite Roza discusses initial findings from our IES-funded research study that seeks to document the range of WSF formulas and detail how they are being implemented in school systems around the nation.


Weighted Student Funding Is On The Rise. Here’s What We Are Learning2020-04-17T03:13:06+00:00

Webinar: Taking Stock as SEAs Begin Releasing Per-Pupil Spending Data

2020-04-17T03:14:40+00:00

In this webinar, Marguerite Roza and Katie Hagan examine school-by-school expenditures in states where data are available. They share how leading states are incorporating financial transparency data in school and district report cards and discuss what can be learned from these early adopters.


Webinar: Taking Stock as SEAs Begin Releasing Per-Pupil Spending Data2020-04-17T03:14:40+00:00

DeVos Proposed $50 Million for Districts to Decentralize Federal Money, to Put Schools in the Driver’s Seat. It’s a Smart Idea

2020-03-17T03:56:54+00:00

In this commentary in The 74, Marguerite Roza urges legislators to consider a proposed pilot program to give school leaders and staff a say in how federal resources are used in their schools


DeVos Proposed $50 Million for Districts to Decentralize Federal Money, to Put Schools in the Driver’s Seat. It’s a Smart Idea2020-03-17T03:56:54+00:00

New Education Department guidance on supplement-not-supplant: Sorry not sorry

2020-03-17T04:00:05+00:00

In this Brookings Chalkboard blog post, Marguerite Roza discusses new U.S. Department of Education guidance on monitoring the “supplement-not-supplant” (SNS) provision of Title I.


New Education Department guidance on supplement-not-supplant: Sorry not sorry2020-03-17T04:00:05+00:00

Dear districts: These are the glory days. Are you ready for tomorrow’s financial pain?

2020-04-17T02:48:15+00:00

In this commentary, Marguerite Roza writes that districts have a chance to strategically prepare for the inevitable economic downturn by reducing recurring costs and resisting more hiring; shifting budget choices to schools, allowing them to protect what matters most; and building trust around money and engaging community in tradeoffs.


Dear districts: These are the glory days. Are you ready for tomorrow’s financial pain?2020-04-17T02:48:15+00:00

Webinar: An Introduction to Student-Based Allocation

2020-04-17T03:16:13+00:00

Designed for district and community leaders, this webinar shares how student-based allocation (SBA) works, why districts use SBA, what SBA formulas look like, and what steps and resources districts can take and tap to move toward SBA.


Webinar: An Introduction to Student-Based Allocation2020-04-17T03:16:13+00:00

Equipping School Leaders to Spend Wisely

2020-03-17T04:25:13+00:00

In this article in the National Association of State Boards of Education journal, The Standard, Marguerite Roza writes that financial transparency presents state boards of education with a timely opportunity to turn the tide on local leader training.


Equipping School Leaders to Spend Wisely2020-03-17T04:25:13+00:00

A Checklist to Guide Data-Visualization Decisions

2020-03-17T04:32:05+00:00

This checklist will help SEAs determine what they hope to accomplish with their financial transparency reporting and which data elements to include in order to answer a range of critical questions.


A Checklist to Guide Data-Visualization Decisions2020-03-17T04:32:05+00:00

Interstate Financial Reporting

2020-03-17T04:40:17+00:00

Interstate Financial Reporting (IFR) was created by states, for states, to meet the financial data reporting requirement under ESSA—and maximize the value of their efforts. Based on a set of voluntary, minimal reporting criteria, IFR is designed to produce data that have common meaning and can be used to make valid, apples-to-apples comparisons of school-level per-pupil expenditures across states nationwide.


Interstate Financial Reporting2020-03-17T04:40:17+00:00

Taking stock of California’s weighted student funding overhaul: What have districts done with their spending flexibility?

2020-03-17T04:48:41+00:00

In 2013 California adopted the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) to drive more resources to students with higher needs, create more spending flexibility, and let districts decide how to spend substantial new dollars. Our analysis examines financial data from nearly all California school systems to clarify how their spending choices changed in the first three years of the new state funding law.


Taking stock of California’s weighted student funding overhaul: What have districts done with their spending flexibility?2020-03-17T04:48:41+00:00

Did districts concentrate new state money on highest-needs schools? Answer: Depends on the district.

2020-03-17T04:55:33+00:00

Our analysis of eight districts takes a first look at whether CA districts did, under LCFF, allocate a larger share of their new funds to their highest-needs schools.


Did districts concentrate new state money on highest-needs schools? Answer: Depends on the district.2020-03-17T04:55:33+00:00

California’s weighted student funding formula: Does it help money matter more?

2020-03-17T05:03:12+00:00

As California’s LCFF enters Year 5 of implementation, this brief analyzes whether we are seeing an improved relationship between spending and outcomes.


California’s weighted student funding formula: Does it help money matter more?2020-03-17T05:03:12+00:00

Funding Student Types: How states can mine their own data to guide finance policy on high-needs students

2020-03-17T05:06:33+00:00

To help states design effective funding policies to serve high-needs students, this brief by Marguerite Roza helps states ask the right questions, tap their own data, and analyze funding in relation to student outcomes.


Funding Student Types: How states can mine their own data to guide finance policy on high-needs students2020-03-17T05:06:33+00:00

Analyzing early impacts of California’s Local Control Funding Formula

2020-03-17T05:11:44+00:00

In 2013, California adopted the Local Control Funding Formula, shifting control over spending decisions from the state legislature to local school districts and eliminating many state-imposed spending rules. This three-part series analyzes early impacts of the LCFF, one of the nation’s largest weighted student funding (WSF) overhauls to date.


Analyzing early impacts of California’s Local Control Funding Formula2020-03-17T05:11:44+00:00

College credit in high school: Doing the math on costs

2020-03-16T20:44:13+00:00

Many policymakers see providing college credit in high school as a money saver, but little research has examined that belief. This brief helps fill the gap, investigating in three states the costs of taking college classes in high school compared to attaining credit after high school.


College credit in high school: Doing the math on costs2020-03-16T20:44:13+00:00

Student Based Allocation District Collaborative Meeting

2020-04-08T22:35:07+00:00

Edunomics Lab hosts a monthly virtual meeting of district finance leaders to share knowledge and solve challenges around student-based allocation practice and collectively produce research that districts need and want. These resources are from an in-person convening of the SBA Network plus other districts interested in learning more.


Student Based Allocation District Collaborative Meeting2020-04-08T22:35:07+00:00

Four Approaches to Assigning Costs to Central Levels vs. School Levels When Calculating Per-Pupil Expenditures

2020-03-16T20:53:13+00:00

With ESSA requiring states to collect and report school-level per-student expenditures, state education agencies are considering setting statewide rules for assigning expenditures to the district or school level. In this brief, we map four approaches states can take and weigh benefits and considerations for each.


Four Approaches to Assigning Costs to Central Levels vs. School Levels When Calculating Per-Pupil Expenditures2020-03-16T20:53:13+00:00

School Level Finance Survey Converter Tool

2020-04-08T22:28:29+00:00

This downloadable tool helps states combine data from two existing federal surveys to calculate school-level per-pupil expenditures for all schools and districts in their survey files and meet the new financial transparency requirement under the Every Student Succeeds Act.


School Level Finance Survey Converter Tool2020-04-08T22:28:29+00:00

Webinar: What does the ESSA financial transparency requirement mean for districts?

2020-04-17T03:18:09+00:00

This webinar provides an overview of the financial transparency requirement in the Every Student Succeeds Act, highlight lessons learned from states working toward meeting the requirement, and provide a district lens for thinking about the opportunities this new data can provide.


Webinar: What does the ESSA financial transparency requirement mean for districts?2020-04-17T03:18:09+00:00

Financial Transparency & Equity

2020-04-17T03:18:55+00:00

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) requires all states to collect and report per-pupil expenditures down to the school level. These four videos may help state education agencies better understand the equity implications of financial transparency as they define and tackle their own financial transparency goals.


Financial Transparency & Equity2020-04-17T03:18:55+00:00

Financial Transparency Reporting Requirement: Where to start

2020-03-16T21:27:09+00:00

In this brief we describe our work with 22 state education agencies to identify data readiness to meet the financial transparency reporting requirement under the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) and outline the inventory processes so other states can identify their own next steps to meet the requirement.


Financial Transparency Reporting Requirement: Where to start2020-03-16T21:27:09+00:00

School-level spending: Financial transparency coming to every community in 2018

2020-04-17T03:19:54+00:00

At the Education Writers Association National Seminar on June 2nd, hosted at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., Marguerite Roza presented on new school spending reports emerging under the federal ESSA financial transparency requirement.


School-level spending: Financial transparency coming to every community in 20182020-04-17T03:19:54+00:00

The Productivity Opportunity: A Role-Playing Activity to Engage Leaders in Financial and Outcomes Data

2020-03-16T21:33:03+00:00

This document offers a set of exercises designed to help education leaders better understand the relationship between spending and student performance—and position them to use emerging data to explore opportunities for productivity in their day-to-day work improving education.


The Productivity Opportunity: A Role-Playing Activity to Engage Leaders in Financial and Outcomes Data2020-03-16T21:33:03+00:00

With New Data, School Finance Is Coming Out of the Dark Ages

2020-04-14T00:10:31+00:00

In this blog and podcast, Marguerite Roza explains how a sleeper provision in the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) will serve up a motherlode of new school-level financial data, offering an unprecedented opportunity to be better equipped to tackle some of education’s most pressing issues.


With New Data, School Finance Is Coming Out of the Dark Ages2020-04-14T00:10:31+00:00

Productivity Improvements Paper Series

2020-03-16T21:36:47+00:00

These five Rapid Response briefs model the costs of productivity improvements in K-12 education, including changes in staffing ratios, the impact of late-career teacher pay raises on pension debt, and paying the best teachers more to teach more students.


Productivity Improvements Paper Series2020-03-16T21:36:47+00:00

The Equity Problem in Teacher Pensions

2020-03-16T21:38:41+00:00

This brief shows how high-minority schools receive fewer dollars in pension wealth than low-minority schools within the same district, and makes the case for pension dollars to be more transparent and included in discussions around K-12 spending equity.


The Equity Problem in Teacher Pensions2020-03-16T21:38:41+00:00

New Era of School Finance

2020-04-08T22:36:53+00:00

In 2016 we convened leading authorities to discuss the complexities of education finance in light of the new Every Student Succeeds Act. Watch Marguerite Roza’s research presentation, US Secretary of Education Arne Duncan’s keynote, and an expert panel discussion of the shifting roles in education finance decisions.


New Era of School Finance2020-04-08T22:36:53+00:00

Are public universities neglecting in-state students?

2020-04-14T00:10:05+00:00

Marguerite Roza responds to an online “Room for Debate” conversation hosted by the New York Times, arguing that chasing after nonresident students threatens the very nature of public universities as institutions that serve the state.


Are public universities neglecting in-state students?2020-04-14T00:10:05+00:00

Productivity is sometimes seen as a dirty word in education

2020-03-16T21:53:00+00:00

This article explores how school systems can improve productivity even when so much of what matters—the human variables and relationships in student learning—can’t be centrally managed and scaled across schools.


Productivity is sometimes seen as a dirty word in education2020-03-16T21:53:00+00:00

The Productivity of Rural Schools

2020-03-16T21:57:36+00:00

Remote rural districts are often more expensive and yield lower student outcomes than urban and suburban districts. Yet some rural districts generate higher-than-expected learning results without proportionately higher spending. Based on interviews with leaders in 30 rural remote districts, Marguerite Roza identifies six factors that make some districts “productivity superstars."


The Productivity of Rural Schools2020-03-16T21:57:36+00:00

Advancing System Productivity Webinar Series

2020-04-08T22:37:35+00:00

Edunomics Lab, in partnership with Council of Chief State School Officers and the Building State Capacity and Productivity Center, convened a Community of Practice to support a group of leaders in all states interested in developing a state-specific framework and strategy set related to the SEA’s role in increasing productivity. This series of five webinars is designed to help Regional Comprehensive Centers support state education agency (SEA) leaders as they explore how they can better support districts and schools to operate in a more productive way.


Advancing System Productivity Webinar Series2020-04-08T22:37:35+00:00

Meeting the ESSA Financial Transparency Reporting Requirement

2020-04-08T22:38:15+00:00

On February 9, 2017 nearly 100 state and district leaders representing 36 states met in Washington, D.C. to explore the opportunities and work ahead to meet the financial transparency reporting requirement in ESSA.  Available presentations are linked.


Meeting the ESSA Financial Transparency Reporting Requirement2020-04-08T22:38:15+00:00

The Smart Money:  Designing a school budget to get the most for your school dollar

2020-04-17T03:22:09+00:00

In this hands-on workshop presented at NAIS national conference in March 2017 school leaders dove into the math of school resource allocation. Dr. Roza shared innovative financial strategies and how leaders could apply the concepts to their own school context.


The Smart Money:  Designing a school budget to get the most for your school dollar2020-04-17T03:22:09+00:00

Highly Productive Rural Districts: What is the Secret Sauce?

2020-03-16T22:00:41+00:00

In this paper we identify some common themes that makes some remote rural districts “productivity superstars” and describe steps states can take to encourage and support district productivity.


Highly Productive Rural Districts: What is the Secret Sauce?2020-03-16T22:00:41+00:00

Promoting Productivity: Lessons from Rural Schools

2020-03-16T22:10:48+00:00

In this essay addresses the assumption that rural districts are less productive than their urban or suburban peers by discussing rural districts can “beat the odds” by increasing student results without increasing per-pupil expenditures.


Promoting Productivity: Lessons from Rural Schools2020-03-16T22:10:48+00:00

Paying the Best Teachers More to Teach More Students

2020-04-17T03:24:36+00:00

In this analysis we find how allowing our best teachers to teach more students in lieu of hiring additional staff could offer significant teacher bonuses. Findings are modeled state-by-state.


Paying the Best Teachers More to Teach More Students2020-04-17T03:24:36+00:00

Innovation Amid Financial Scarcity: The Opportunity in Rural Schools

2020-03-16T23:52:25+00:00

In this paper we explore spending and outcomes data of rural schools and highlight policy implications for states seeking improved outcomes for all their districts in the context of limited resources.


Innovation Amid Financial Scarcity: The Opportunity in Rural Schools2020-03-16T23:52:25+00:00

The Phantom Menace: Policies that Protect Districts from Declining or Low Enrollments, Drive Up Spending and Inhibit Adaptation

2020-03-16T22:37:05+00:00

This paper examines the practice of states funding school districts for students who do not attend school there. Aimed at “protecting” districts from enrollment fluctuations, the practice drives up spending and inhibits adaptation.


The Phantom Menace: Policies that Protect Districts from Declining or Low Enrollments, Drive Up Spending and Inhibit Adaptation2020-03-16T22:37:05+00:00

Student Based Allocation 101

2020-04-08T22:32:34+00:00

This one-page infographic explains what student-based allocation is, how it differs from traditional funding formulas and what its primary benefits are.


Student Based Allocation 1012020-04-08T22:32:34+00:00

Can decentralization improve Seattle schools?

2020-03-16T23:40:52+00:00

In this op-ed, we argue that when the district decides what positions to fund in a school—rather than the school being empowered to decide based on its community priorities—it destroys goodwill and trust in the school system.


Can decentralization improve Seattle schools?2020-03-16T23:40:52+00:00

The Real Deal on K-12 Staffing

2020-03-17T00:04:58+00:00

This analysis finds that staffing ratios across K-12 education have risen precipitously over several decades and, despite the impact of the Great Recession, remain at 2004 levels. A state-by-state comparison reveals large disparities across states.


The Real Deal on K-12 Staffing2020-03-17T00:04:58+00:00

Building SEA Productivity

2020-03-17T00:08:37+00:00

In this presentation state education chiefs heard about a basic framework for leading the productivity challenge that includes building a productivity data infrastructure, prioritizing flexibility, aligning funds with students, incentivizing innovation, and leading the change.


Building SEA Productivity2020-03-17T00:08:37+00:00

Denver Public Schools: Making More Money Follow Students

2020-03-17T00:31:00+00:00

This two-page brief outlines how Denver Public Schools has steadily increased the amount of district funds funneled through the student based allocation formula the school system adopted in 2008. In fiscal 2014, the district allocated $3235 million, or approximately 38 percent, of its $865 million budget.


Denver Public Schools: Making More Money Follow Students2020-03-17T00:31:00+00:00

What Portion of District Funds Follow Students?

2020-03-17T00:41:10+00:00

Part of our ongoing study of budgets in systems implementing student based allocation, in this four-page brief we analyze 12 district budgets and find that the systems allocate roughly 24 to 42 percent of their funds through an SBA formula.


What Portion of District Funds Follow Students?2020-03-17T00:41:10+00:00

Boston Public Schools: Weighting What Matters

2020-03-17T00:33:04+00:00

In this three-page brief, we analyze the share of district dollars Boston Public Schools funneled through its student based allocation formula, adopted in 2012. In fiscal 2014, the district allocated $3235 million, or approximately 38 percent, of its $865 million budget through the formula.


Boston Public Schools: Weighting What Matters2020-03-17T00:33:04+00:00

A State Information System to Support Improvements in Productivity

2020-03-17T00:44:10+00:00

In this paper, we discuss how states can (and why they should) track and share school-level outcomes relative to school-level spending in their online information systems. Some schools are far more productive than others—getting better student results for less money—yet states are not yet routinely identifying such schools.


A State Information System to Support Improvements in Productivity2020-03-17T00:44:10+00:00

Funding for Student’s Sake: How to Stop Financing Tomorrow’s Schools Based on Today’s Priorities

2020-04-17T03:27:32+00:00

Most states make major changes in their allocation models only every two decades or so. In this paper, we explore how states can make the most of their redesign to get better outcomes for the money.


Funding for Student’s Sake: How to Stop Financing Tomorrow’s Schools Based on Today’s Priorities2020-04-17T03:27:32+00:00

SEA of the Future: Building the Productivity Infrastructure

2020-04-17T03:28:05+00:00

This publication introduces the “productivity infrastructure" the building blocks for an SEA committed to supporting productivity, innovation, and performance—from the state chief to the classroom.


SEA of the Future: Building the Productivity Infrastructure2020-04-17T03:28:05+00:00

Webinar: Training Principals for Budgeting at the School Level

2020-03-17T00:58:33+00:00

In this webinar and presentation, we share seven key steps for principals to customize their use of resources based on student outcomes goals and needs. This includes concrete budget strategies and hands-on exercises to help principals understand and weigh cost and tradeoff scenarios.


Webinar: Training Principals for Budgeting at the School Level2020-03-17T00:58:33+00:00

How much money follows the student in WSF (aka SBA) districts?

2020-03-17T00:57:38+00:00

In this presentation at the annual Association for Education Finance and Policy conference, we share our findings that the percent of total funds allocated via student based allocation (%SBA) ranges from a low of 23 percent to a high of 45 percent among ten urban school districts studied.


How much money follows the student in WSF (aka SBA) districts?2020-03-17T00:57:38+00:00

Rethinking Class Size to Expand Access to Best Teachers and Raise Pay

2020-04-08T22:38:55+00:00

In this presentation at the annual Association for Education Finance and Policy conference, we share our exploration and cost modeling of cost-neutral options to raise teacher pay and give more students access to the best teachers.


Rethinking Class Size to Expand Access to Best Teachers and Raise Pay2020-04-08T22:38:55+00:00

Civic Vitality and Public Education Productivity: The Harbormaster Mayor

2020-03-16T22:07:37+00:00

In this brief, we argue that mayors, as the person responsible for a municipality’s overall well-being, are uniquely positioned to identify and promote productive school models and advocate for all students, regardless of what type of school they attend.


Civic Vitality and Public Education Productivity: The Harbormaster Mayor2020-03-16T22:07:37+00:00

Webinar: Building a State Information System to Support Improvements in Productivity

2020-03-16T22:12:11+00:00

On February 26, 2016 Marguerite Roza conducted a webinar for state education agency leaders. This webinar explored how SEAs can build an information system designed to drive productivity – what data are needed, how to compile the data into useful resources for leaders at every level of education and how these stakeholders can use the data to drive decision making and advance productivity.


Webinar: Building a State Information System to Support Improvements in Productivity2020-03-16T22:12:11+00:00

Taking Off the Heat

2020-04-08T22:39:36+00:00

On January 29, 2014 Marguerite Roza shared risks and rewards that emerge when districts “decentralize” engagement around financial decisions to the school level with Portfolio School District Network members in Houston, TX.


Taking Off the Heat2020-04-08T22:39:36+00:00

VisionSBA: K-12 Financial Modeling Tool

2020-04-08T22:31:50+00:00

VisionSBA provides education leaders with a unique outlook on spending by school level within a district, delivering insight into relative spending across schools adjusted for each school’s actual mix of students. This interactive tool developed by Marguerite Roza and Jim Simpkins answers the question: “How much does each school spend relative to all other schools in this district taking into account its particular mix of students?”


VisionSBA: K-12 Financial Modeling Tool2020-04-08T22:31:50+00:00

Options for NY State in an Era of Constrained Resources

2020-03-17T05:19:25+00:00

At a public symposium of the NY Education Reform Commission, Marguerite Roza presented on "Maximizing Resources for Student and School Success."


Options for NY State in an Era of Constrained Resources2020-03-17T05:19:25+00:00

The SEA of the Future: Prioritizing Productivity

2020-03-17T05:26:15+00:00

In this volume of The SEA of the Future, Marguerite Roza co-authored two essays examining how state leaders, challenged with having to make decisions on how to use limited resources, are faced with an uneasy zero-sum game: every dollar they put into one program is a dollar not spent in another.


The SEA of the Future: Prioritizing Productivity2020-03-17T05:26:15+00:00

Teacher Retirement Benefits: Defining a More Active Role for SEAs and Their Chiefs

2020-03-17T05:29:02+00:00

In this essay from The SEA of the Future Volume 2, Marguerite Roza and Michael Podgursky look in depth at the startling long-term costs of educator pension systems and the counterproductive employment incentives embedded in these systems.


Teacher Retirement Benefits: Defining a More Active Role for SEAs and Their Chiefs2020-03-17T05:29:02+00:00

The Case Against High School Sports

2020-03-17T05:35:47+00:00

In this article published by The Atlantic, author Amanda Ripley draws on Marguerite Roza’s research as she describes the role of high school sports in the American education system, how current resource allocations favor sports over academics, and consequences as American students fall behind in international rankings.


The Case Against High School Sports2020-03-17T05:35:47+00:00

The High Price of Excess Credits

2020-03-17T05:40:27+00:00

This brief examines the cost of extra credits earned by students in California, Georgia, and New York, and opportunities for state and university leaders to maximize degree attainment with constrained resources.


The High Price of Excess Credits2020-03-17T05:40:27+00:00

More Students, More Degrees, More Dollars

2020-03-17T05:44:58+00:00

Cuts to state support for higher education have prompted some universities to raise tuition, admit more out-of-state students, and increase enrollment to close budget gaps. This analysis compares these three strategies in public flagship universities, first in terms of the relative magnitude needed to close a gap in state funds, and then in terms of the extent to which they contribute to degree production for students in their state.


More Students, More Degrees, More Dollars2020-03-17T05:44:58+00:00

Funding Phantom Students

2020-03-16T16:38:53+00:00

This brief describes a common practice that inhibits both efficiency and productivity: funding students who do not actually attend school in funded districts and how this is often overlooked by state leaders.


Funding Phantom Students2020-03-16T16:38:53+00:00

How Current Education Governance Distorts Financial Decisionmaking

2020-03-16T16:35:19+00:00

In this chapter, Roza assesses the strengths and weaknesses of what remains of the old in education governance, scrutinizes how traditional governance forms are changing, and suggests how governing arrangements might be further altered to produce better educational outcomes for children.


How Current Education Governance Distorts Financial Decisionmaking2020-03-16T16:35:19+00:00

Student-Based Allocation to Enable School Choice

2020-03-16T16:34:29+00:00

This brief explains the need for student-based allocation to enable student choice and portable funding across schools within districts.


Student-Based Allocation to Enable School Choice2020-03-16T16:34:29+00:00

Innovating Toward Sustainability: How Computer Labs Can Enable New Staffing Structures, and New Savings

2020-03-16T16:33:28+00:00

Using wage and staffing data from states, authors project the financial and staffing implications of one innovative school model (the Rocketship lab rotation) to highlight potential impacts on the schooling workforce and total per-student spending.


Innovating Toward Sustainability: How Computer Labs Can Enable New Staffing Structures, and New Savings2020-03-16T16:33:28+00:00

Are Residents Losing Their Edge in Public University Admissions? The Case at the University of Washington

2020-03-16T16:28:11+00:00

This brief examines admissions data at the University of Washington to in order to quantify the effect on admissions standards for residents versus nonresidents, who typically pay higher tuitions.


Are Residents Losing Their Edge in Public University Admissions? The Case at the University of Washington2020-03-16T16:28:11+00:00

What Happens to Teacher Salaries During a Recession?

2020-04-17T02:41:17+00:00

This study uses data from Seattle Public Schools to explore actual salary changes amidst rapid changes in economic context and the effect of the recession on teacher pay.


What Happens to Teacher Salaries During a Recession?2020-04-17T02:41:17+00:00

The Sheepskin Effect and Student Achievement: De-emphasizing the Role of Master’s Degrees in Teacher Compensation

2020-03-16T16:07:29+00:00

This brief dissects the nation’s sizable investment in master’s bumps as a means of highlighting policy obstacles to a more smartly differentiated compensation approach.


The Sheepskin Effect and Student Achievement: De-emphasizing the Role of Master’s Degrees in Teacher Compensation2020-03-16T16:07:29+00:00

Rethinking State Education Finance Toward Greater Productivity

2020-03-16T16:05:15+00:00

This presentation framed how state legislators might think differently about their investment in education to maximize scarce state dollars and improve student achievement.


Rethinking State Education Finance Toward Greater Productivity2020-03-16T16:05:15+00:00

The Promise of Cafeteria-Style Benefits for Districts and Teachers

2020-03-16T16:03:12+00:00

While typical school district plans offer a one-size-fits-all package of benefits to employees, cafeteria plans allow employees to customize their benefits within a given cost, an option districts may want to consider.


The Promise of Cafeteria-Style Benefits for Districts and Teachers2020-03-16T16:03:12+00:00

Washington State High Schools Pay Less for Math and Science Teachers than for Teachers in Other Subjects

2020-03-16T16:01:15+00:00

This paper examines the reasons why math and science teachers struggle to reach the same salaries as others, concluding that the state-wide salary schedule is in part to blame.


Washington State High Schools Pay Less for Math and Science Teachers than for Teachers in Other Subjects2020-03-16T16:01:15+00:00

Curing Baumol’s Disease: In Search of Productivity Gains in Public Education

2020-03-16T16:00:00+00:00

The authors discuss several areas in which labor-intensive businesses have improved productivity, but are absent in education. They conclude with a five-step agenda for finding the cure for Baumol’s disease in public education.


Curing Baumol’s Disease: In Search of Productivity Gains in Public Education2020-03-16T16:00:00+00:00

A False Dilemma: Should Decisions About Education Resource Use Be Made at the State or Local Level?

2020-03-16T15:56:32+00:00

The shift in authority from the local to the state level raises several critical questions. In this paper, the authors suggest that the question should be “What obstacles prevent better connections between real dollars and valuable resources for students?”


A False Dilemma: Should Decisions About Education Resource Use Be Made at the State or Local Level?2020-03-16T15:56:32+00:00

Breaking Down School Budgets: Following the Dollars into the Classroom

2020-03-13T22:44:27+00:00

This analysis examines ways in which per-pupil spending in high schools varies by subject and course level, and demonstrates how isolating spending on discrete services can have a variety of benefits.


Breaking Down School Budgets: Following the Dollars into the Classroom2020-03-13T22:44:27+00:00

The Disproportionate Impact of Seniority-Based Layoffs on Poor, Minority Students

2020-04-17T02:55:03+00:00

A study of California's 15 largest districts indicates that "last in, first out" policies disproportionately affect the programs and students in their poorer and more minority schools than in their wealthier, less minority counterparts.


The Disproportionate Impact of Seniority-Based Layoffs on Poor, Minority Students2020-04-17T02:55:03+00:00

Educational Economics: Where Do School Funds Go?

2020-03-13T22:47:11+00:00

This book explains how varied funding streams can prevent schools from delivering academic services that mesh with their stated priorities and offers concrete prescriptions for reform.


Educational Economics: Where Do School Funds Go?2020-03-13T22:47:11+00:00

K–12 Job Trends Amidst Stimulus Funds: Early Findings

2020-04-17T02:55:41+00:00

This brief explores trends in K–12 education jobs—those funded through the stimulus and by other means—to answer the question of what role ARRA played in overall education employment.


K–12 Job Trends Amidst Stimulus Funds: Early Findings2020-04-17T02:55:41+00:00

Beyond Teacher Reassignments: Better Ways Districts Can Remedy Salary Inequities Across Schools

2020-04-17T02:56:50+00:00

This brief demonstrates how, contrary to common worry, closing Title I's "comparability provision" loophole would not force districts to mandatorily reassign teachers.


Beyond Teacher Reassignments: Better Ways Districts Can Remedy Salary Inequities Across Schools2020-04-17T02:56:50+00:00

Have States Disproportionately Cut Education Budgets During ARRA? Early Findings

2020-04-28T21:17:08+00:00

This analysis explores how state education spending has changed or will change given the application of the State Fiscal Stabilization Fund, a policy intended to stabilize state budgets and avert cuts to education.


Have States Disproportionately Cut Education Budgets During ARRA? Early Findings2020-04-28T21:17:08+00:00

Now is a Great Time to Compute the Per-Unit Cost of Everything in Education

2020-03-13T22:48:32+00:00

This paper examines how calculating the per unit costs of what schools or districts can deliver can provide the best insight into the implications of all that spending. 


Now is a Great Time to Compute the Per-Unit Cost of Everything in Education2020-03-13T22:48:32+00:00

Seniority-Based Layoffs Will Exacerbate Job Loss in Public Education

2020-04-17T02:59:06+00:00

This brief details why K-12 school districts that lay off personnel according to seniority cause disproportionate damage to their programs and students than if layoffs were determined on a seniority-neutral basis.


Seniority-Based Layoffs Will Exacerbate Job Loss in Public Education2020-04-17T02:59:06+00:00

What is the Sum of the Parts? How Federal, State, and District Funding Streams Confound Efforts to Address Different Student Types

2020-03-13T22:49:19+00:00

The authors demonstrate in greater detail than ever before how America’s methods of school finance work against a single-minded focus on student learning.


What is the Sum of the Parts? How Federal, State, and District Funding Streams Confound Efforts to Address Different Student Types2020-03-13T22:49:19+00:00

Understanding Student-Weighted Allocation as a Means to Greater School Resource Equity

2020-03-13T22:49:46+00:00

This study examines Houston ISD and Cincinnati Public Schools, providing evidence that student-weighted allocation can be a means toward greater resource equity among schools within districts.


Understanding Student-Weighted Allocation as a Means to Greater School Resource Equity2020-03-13T22:49:46+00:00

How Districts Shortchange Low-Income and Minority Students

2020-03-13T22:50:25+00:00

Dr. Roza's analysis demonstrates that, despite district bookkeeping practices that make funding across schools within the same district appear relatively comparable, substantially less money is spent in high-poverty and high-minority schools.


How Districts Shortchange Low-Income and Minority Students2020-03-13T22:50:25+00:00

Pennywise and Pound Foolish in Education

2020-03-13T22:50:54+00:00

The authors suggest that weighed student funding would show exactly where the money is going and foster transparency and accountability for performance, thereby potentially closing the gaps in local public service quality between the privileged and the disadvantaged.


Pennywise and Pound Foolish in Education2020-03-13T22:50:54+00:00

A Cost Allocation Model for Shared District Resources: A Means for Comparing Spending Across Schools

2020-03-13T22:51:14+00:00

It can be difficult to assess how resources are distributed between schools, and whether every school is afforded the same opportunities to meet its educational goals. This paper addresses one key driver of spending variation between schools: shared district resources.


A Cost Allocation Model for Shared District Resources: A Means for Comparing Spending Across Schools2020-03-13T22:51:14+00:00

Leveling the Playing Field: Creating Funding Equity Through Student-Based Budgeting

2020-03-13T22:51:36+00:00

This report traces Cincinnati Public Schools' process of moving to a system of student based budgeting: funding children rather than staff members, and weighting the funding according to schools and students' needs.


Leveling the Playing Field: Creating Funding Equity Through Student-Based Budgeting2020-03-13T22:51:36+00:00