Publications & Resources

Please contact us at edunomics@georgetown.edu for accessible versions of these resources.

Chicago Teachers Nearing Retirement Paid a Big Price in Striking

The Chicago Teachers Union leaders were adamant that they weren’t on strike over salaries, but rather were fighting for educational justice in the form of more staffing. Now that the dust has settled, the numbers support that claim. Teachers didn’t gain anything in terms of salary that wasn’t already offered before the strike started. Instead, they lost six

Chicago Teachers Nearing Retirement Paid a Big Price in Striking2019-12-12T18:21:55+00:00

Leaders Ignored Teacher Pension Debt. Now There’s Less Money for Teacher Salaries and Students

This brief quantifies in immediately relatable terms—by student and by teacher—the magnitude of the crowd-out that pension debt creates for six states: CA, IL, LA, SC, TX, and VT. In translating debt payments into the equivalent spend per pupil, and the equivalent spend per teacher, the goal is to help education leaders grasp the relationship between their pension debt bills and their aspirations for spending on schooling inputs, including teacher salaries.

Leaders Ignored Teacher Pension Debt. Now There’s Less Money for Teacher Salaries and Students2019-11-26T19:18:05+00:00

A Guide for SEA-led Resource Allocation Reviews Appendix 1: Sample Data Report

September 2019 Marguerite Roza, Katherine Hagan and Hannah Jarmolowski The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) requires state education agencies (SEAs) to conduct periodic resource allocation reviews (RARs) in districts that serve low-performing schools. This is a new opportunity for states and districts to examine the connection between resource allocation and academic outcomes. In preparing for the

A Guide for SEA-led Resource Allocation Reviews Appendix 1: Sample Data Report2019-10-02T19:36:51+00:00

Funding for Students’ Sake: How to Stop Financing Tomorrow’s Schools Based on Yesterday’s Priorities

Student-based allocation (also known as weighted student funding) provides the most equitable, efficient, and flexible path toward increased productivity. This brief explains why it is a good idea to allocate resources on the basis of students, and measures several states' progress toward doing so.

Funding for Students’ Sake: How to Stop Financing Tomorrow’s Schools Based on Yesterday’s Priorities2019-11-21T22:11:35+00:00

Webinar: The Changing Role of Education Finance Leadership

A webinar exploring connections and opportunities with ESSA's financial transparency requirement, the new Supplement-not-Supplant requirement for a district “resource allocation methodology” and “resource allocation reviews” as well as what each means for states and districts.

Webinar: The Changing Role of Education Finance Leadership2019-09-05T21:03:06+00:00

Spending patterns, equity and achievement in districts using weighted student funding

Edunomics Lab is leading a three year study funded by Institute of Education Sciences titled "How do Spending Patterns Change with Weighted Student Funding (WSF), and What's Happening to Equity and Achievement, Particularly for Poor and At-Risk Students?"

Spending patterns, equity and achievement in districts using weighted student funding2019-11-22T22:55:21+00:00

A Way to Get School Finances Back Under Control

Amid demands on school districts for increased spending, a troubling trend is emerging: School district leaders are approving budgets and signing labor deals they can't afford. It's a dangerous and disruptive cycle that throws these districts into financial turmoil, produces layoffs that hurt students as well as teachers, and can leave states and taxpayers on the hook for

A Way to Get School Finances Back Under Control2019-06-28T17:58:28+00:00

Training School Leaders to Spend Wisely

Raise the topic of education finance and most jump to the revenue side of the equation: Is there enough money? Are districts funded equitably? But the spending side is equally important and is about to get much more attention, thanks to a provision in the Every Student Succeeds Act that will make school-level spending data public. District

Training School Leaders to Spend Wisely2019-09-16T20:22:25+00:00

Understanding school finance is one thing. Being effective in communicating about it is another skill entirely

Recent research reveals a lot about what those in schools and the broader public know about school finance, and what they don’t. It’s very clear that there are some important knowledge gaps about how schools are funded—and that many people are hungry to engage with the issue more fully. There is also a clear need for

Understanding school finance is one thing. Being effective in communicating about it is another skill entirely2019-06-15T00:16:24+00:00

L.A. District Is Asking for a $500 Million Parcel Tax. In Return, Let the Schools Decide How to Spend Their New Funds

As LAUSD asks local voters to approve a $500 million annual parcel tax, some groups are asking for financial reform in return. Trust in the district’s financial leadership is low, school performance is lagging, and the district is bleeding cash to cover commitments made in years past. As Marguerite Roza and Anthony Drew note in this commentary, many of the

L.A. District Is Asking for a $500 Million Parcel Tax. In Return, Let the Schools Decide How to Spend Their New Funds2019-06-14T23:36:02+00:00

Weighted Student Funding Is On The Rise. Here’s What We Are Learning

Over the last two decades, dozens of big districts (including those in New York City, Boston, Denver, Houston, and Chicago) have shifted to using a weighted student formula to distribute some portion of their total budget. In this blog, Marguerite Roza discusses initial findings from Edunomics Lab’s ongoing IES-funded research study that seeks to document the range of

Weighted Student Funding Is On The Rise. Here’s What We Are Learning2019-06-15T00:01:09+00:00

Webinar: Taking Stock as SEAs Begin Releasing Per Pupil Spending Data

Marguerite Roza and Katie Hagan April 2019 In the coming year SEAs will report (many for the first time) per school spending data. In this webinar Marguerite Roza and Katie Hagan examine school-by-school expenditures in those states where data are now available sharing how leading states are incorporating financial transparency data in school and district report cards and

Webinar: Taking Stock as SEAs Begin Releasing Per Pupil Spending Data2019-06-25T23:09:29+00:00

DeVos Proposed $50 Million for Districts to Decentralize Federal Money, to Put Schools in the Driver’s Seat. It’s a Smart Idea

The U.S. Department of Education’s proposed 2020 budget included a largely overlooked provision that could bring more autonomy to schools in how they deploy federal dollars. In this commentary, Marguerite Roza urges legislators to consider the pilot program to give school leaders and staff a say in how federal resources are used in their schools—and a chance to

DeVos Proposed $50 Million for Districts to Decentralize Federal Money, to Put Schools in the Driver’s Seat. It’s a Smart Idea2019-06-15T00:06:09+00:00

New Education Department guidance on supplement-not-supplant: Sorry not sorry

In this blog post, Marguerite Roza discusses the new U.S. Department of Education guidance on monitoring the “supplement-not-supplant” (SNS) provision of Title I. SNS specifies that federal Title I funds for schools with high concentrations of poverty must be used to augment state and local funding, rather than offset it. Where the Obama Administration attempted (and failed) to require

New Education Department guidance on supplement-not-supplant: Sorry not sorry2019-05-28T15:55:56+00:00

Dear districts: These are the glory days. Are you ready for tomorrow’s financial pain?

Just like the years leading up to 2008, the last few years have yielded stronger growth in funds for schooling. And just like in 2008, there are signs of troubleahead. While we can’t predict how an economic downturn will affect every district, we can anticipate some big-picture trends, and in doing so potentially help insulate school systems from needless

Dear districts: These are the glory days. Are you ready for tomorrow’s financial pain?2019-12-12T18:43:56+00:00

Webinar: An Introduction to Student Based Allocation

Designed for district and community leaders, this webinar shares how student based allocation (SBA) works, why districts use SBA, what SBA formulas look like and what steps and resources districts can take and tap to move toward SBA.

Webinar: An Introduction to Student Based Allocation2019-08-21T15:54:14+00:00

Equipping School Leaders to Spend Wisely

While the revenue side of education finance gets plenty of attention (Is there enough money?), the spending side is equally important and yet gets short shrift. This is partly due to a lack of visibility into how the money is spent. But that is about to change, thanks to a new provision in the Every Student Succeeds Act.

Equipping School Leaders to Spend Wisely2019-05-24T11:37:11+00:00

A Checklist to Guide Data-Visualization Decisions

The financial transparency requirement in the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) requires states to report per-pupil expenditures down to the school level on state and district report cards. As states decide how to visually communicate these data, an important first step is to understand how various stakeholders (e.g., policymakers, district and school leaders, community advocates, parents, media, etc.)

A Checklist to Guide Data-Visualization Decisions2019-07-23T23:42:20+00:00

Interstate Financial Reporting

Making the most of school-level per-student spending data Interstate Financial Reporting (IFR) was created by states, for states, to meet the financial data reporting requirement under ESSA—and maximize the value of their efforts. Based on a set of voluntary, minimal reporting criteria, IFR is designed to produce data that have common meaning and can be used to make

Interstate Financial Reporting2019-03-23T13:11:02+00:00

Taking stock of California’s weighted student funding overhaul: What have districts done with their spending flexibility?

Marguerite Roza, Tim Coughlin and Laura Anderson Published December 2017 California in 2013 moved to drive more resources for students with higher needs, create more spending flexibility and let districts decide how to spend substantial new dollars by adopting a new watershed state finance policy, the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF). Our December 2017 analysis examines financial

Taking stock of California’s weighted student funding overhaul: What have districts done with their spending flexibility?2019-03-23T13:42:02+00:00

Did districts concentrate new state money on highest-needs schools? Answer: Depends on the district.

Marguerite Roza, Tim Coughlin and Laura Anderson December 2017 California in 2013 implemented a watershed weighted student funding formula (WSF) that deployed substantial new funds to districts based on their counts of student types, while also stripping long-standing spending constraints on districts. The state finance formula (the Local Control Funding Formula or LCFF) specifically boosted allocations to

Did districts concentrate new state money on highest-needs schools? Answer: Depends on the district.2019-03-23T13:43:35+00:00

California’s weighted student funding formula: Does it help money matter more?

Elena Derby and Marguerite Roza December 2017 California in 2013 moved to drive more resources for students with higher needs, create more spending flexibility and let districts decide how to spend substantial new dollars by adopting a new watershed state finance policy, the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF). As California’s Weighted Student Funding (WSF) law enters Year

California’s weighted student funding formula: Does it help money matter more?2019-03-23T13:52:47+00:00

Funding Student Types: How states can mine their own data to guide finance policy on high-needs students

Marguerite Roza November 2017 New data and accountability agendas have heightened attention to performance disparities between students with different identifiable needs—needs that stem from poverty, disability, or limited English proficiency. To help states design effective funding policies to serve high-needs students, this brief by Marguerite Roza helps states ask the right questions, tap their own data, and

Funding Student Types: How states can mine their own data to guide finance policy on high-needs students2019-03-23T13:59:31+00:00

Analyzing early impacts of California’s Local Control Funding Formula

This three-part series analyzes the early impacts of California’s 2013 adoption of the watershed Local Control Funding Formula. The state’s move effectively shifted control over spending decisions from the state legislature to local school districts and eliminated a slew of state-imposed spending rules that many local districts saw as impediments to doing the most with their dollars.

Analyzing early impacts of California’s Local Control Funding Formula2019-03-31T14:02:05+00:00

College credit in high school: Doing the math on costs

Marguerite Roza and Caitlin Brooks December 2017 In this analysis Marguerite Roza and Caitlin Brooks examine the actual extent of savings (if any) tied to taking college classes in high school by investigating the costs of providing college credit in high school for models in three states: Florida, Georgia, and Ohio. Authors examined costs paid by public dollars,

College credit in high school: Doing the math on costs2019-03-23T14:11:14+00:00

Student Based Allocation District Collaborative Meeting

Student-based allocation (SBA aka WSF) is a growing financial strategy for mid and large sized school districts that enables a more equitable, flexible, and transparent distribution of resources to schools. To date, districts in Boston, Denver, NYC, Houston, Nashville, Minneapolis, Hartford, New Orleans, and dozens of other cities have shifted to the use of a student-based allocation formula

Student Based Allocation District Collaborative Meeting2019-04-11T22:56:58+00:00

Four Approaches to Assigning Costs to Central Levels vs. School Levels When Calculating Per-Pupil Expenditures

Marguerite Roza and Katherine Hagan September 2017 This paper authored by Marguerite Roza and Katherine Hagan outlines different approaches state education agencies may take when calculating per pupil expenditures weighing the benefits and considerations of each. Read More Linked resources: Developing Rhode Island's Chart of Accounts A Conversation with Donna Nester about Mississippi’s Account

Four Approaches to Assigning Costs to Central Levels vs. School Levels When Calculating Per-Pupil Expenditures2019-03-31T14:09:26+00:00

School Level Finance Survey Converter Tool

This tool can help state education agencies (SEAs) meet the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) financial transparency per-pupil expenditure reporting requirement using two pre-existing federal survey tools -- the School Level Finance Survey (SLFS) and the Local Education Agency Finance Survey (also called F-33). State agencies can use this tool to combine data from those two surveys to

School Level Finance Survey Converter Tool2019-05-23T22:58:03+00:00

What does the ESSA financial transparency requirement mean for districts?

Marguerite Roza In this webinar hosted by AASA, Marguerite Roza provides an overview of the financial transparency requirement in the Every Student Succeeds Act, highlight lessons learned from states working towards meeting the requirement, and provide a district lens for thinking about the opportunities this new data can provide. View the recorded webinar View Presentation

What does the ESSA financial transparency requirement mean for districts?2019-03-31T14:48:22+00:00

Financial Transparency & Equity

Reporting per-pupil expenditures at the school level will undoubtedly uncover some inequitable distribution of resources within states and districts across the country. The videos listed and linked below are part of a larger conversation about the equity element of the financial transparency at a meeting we convened in February 2017. State education agencies may find these videos helpful as

Financial Transparency & Equity2019-03-26T12:54:12+00:00

Financial Transparency Reporting Requirement: Where to start

Marguerite Roza and Katherine Hagan March 2017 In this paper authors Marguerite Roza and Katherine Hagan describe their work with 22 state education agencies to identify data readiness to meet the financial transparency reporting requirement and outline the inventory processes so other states can identify their own data readiness and start to outline next steps to meet the requirement.

Financial Transparency Reporting Requirement: Where to start2019-03-23T14:25:29+00:00

School-level spending: Financial transparency coming to every community in 2018

Marguerite Roza June 2017 At the Education Writers Association National Seminar on June 2nd, hosted at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., Marguerite Roza presented on new school spending reports emerging under the federal ESSA financial transparency requirement. In this session, reporters gained insight into what can be learned from pairing school-level financial data with outcomes and other data, as

School-level spending: Financial transparency coming to every community in 20182019-08-05T23:38:38+00:00

The Productivity Opportunity: A Role-Playing Activity to Engage Leaders in Financial and Outcomes Data

This document offers a set of exercises designed to help education leaders better understand the relationship between spending and student performance—and position them to use emerging data to explore opportunities for productivity in their day-to-day work improving education. The exercises are intended to make productivity data easily comprehensible. They are designed to engage education leaders and

The Productivity Opportunity: A Role-Playing Activity to Engage Leaders in Financial and Outcomes Data2019-07-23T23:05:44+00:00

With New Data, School Finance Is Coming Out of the Dark Ages

Marguerite Roza August 4, 2017 In this post and podcast Marguerite Roza shares how a sleeper provision in the Every Student Succeeds Act will serve up a motherlode of never-before-available school-level financial data. And how if we seize the unprecedented opportunity this data offers, we will be better equipped to tackle some of education’s most pressing issues.

With New Data, School Finance Is Coming Out of the Dark Ages2019-11-21T21:56:01+00:00

Productivity Improvements Paper Series

Marguerite Roza, Jim Simpkins, Jessica Jonovski and Amanda Warco Below are links to several papers by Edunomics Lab cost modeling productivity improvements. The Real Deal on K-12 Staffing In the absence of reliable estimates of national K-12 staffing, Jim Simpkins and Marguerite Roza compile data from several national sources to determine historical K-12 staffing ratios. Their analysis

Productivity Improvements Paper Series2019-04-09T11:42:28+00:00

The Equity Problem in Teacher Pensions

Marguerite Roza and Katherine Hagan January 2017 Research has shown that teachers and salaries are inequitably distributed within school districts, but the same rationale has yet to be applied to pension wealth. This new paper by Marguerite Roza shows how high-minority schools receive fewer dollars in pension wealth than low-minority schools within the same district, and makes the

The Equity Problem in Teacher Pensions2019-03-23T14:37:54+00:00

New Era of School Finance

A New Era of School Finance The McCourt School of Public Policy’s 2016 LEAD Conference, A New Era of School Finance, led by Seattle-based research center Edunomics Lab, convened leading authorities for a dialogue on the complexities of education finance in light of the new Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). The conference sessions examined how leadership roles at each

New Era of School Finance2019-04-08T22:17:52+00:00

Are public universities neglecting in-state students?

Marguerite Roza April - 2016 Marguerite Roza participated in an online conversation "Room for Debate" hosted by NY Times. Read her response titled "Public Universities Must Not Solve Budget Gaps by Limiting Access to In-State students." Read More

Are public universities neglecting in-state students?2019-04-03T15:43:14+00:00

Productivity is sometimes seen as a dirty word in education

Marguerite Roza Fall 2015 In this article published by Education Next author Marguerite Roza discusses how school systems can improve productivity when so much of what matters -- human interactions -- can't be centrally managed and scaled across schools. This article was originally published by New York State Association of School Business Officers in The Reporter Fall

Productivity is sometimes seen as a dirty word in education2019-11-21T22:01:06+00:00

The Productivity of Rural Schools

Marguerite Roza March 2016 Remote rural districts are often more expensive and yield lower student outcomes than urban and suburban districts. Yet some rural districts generate higher-than-expected learning results without proportionately higher spending. Based on interviews with leaders in 30 rural remote districts, Marguerite Roza identifies six factors that make some districts “productivity superstars." This

The Productivity of Rural Schools2019-07-22T23:08:49+00:00

Advancing System Productivity Webinar Series

Advancing System Productivity Webinar Series Edunomics Lab, in partnership with Council of Chief State School Officers and the Building State Capacity and Productivity Center, convened a Community of Practice to support a group of leaders in all states interested in developing a state-specific framework and strategy set related to the SEA’s role in increasing productivity. This series of five webinars

Advancing System Productivity Webinar Series2019-03-06T04:47:22+00:00

Meeting the ESSA Financial Transparency Reporting Requirement

On February 9 nearly 100 state and district leaders representing 36 states met in Washington D.C. to explore the opportunities and work ahead to meet the financial transparency reporting requirement in ESSA.  Available presentations are linked below. Full Agenda Presenter Bios The Opportunity of Financial Transparency - Marguerite Roza, Director Edunomics Lab & partner of BSCP

Meeting the ESSA Financial Transparency Reporting Requirement2019-04-09T12:08:49+00:00

The Smart Money:  Designing a school budget to get the most for your school dollar

Marguerite Roza March 2017 In this hands-on workshop presented at NAIS national conference in March 2017 school leaders dove into the math of school resource allocation. Dr Roza shared innovative financial strategies and how leaders could apply the concepts to their own school context. Topics included; getting a grip on rising costs; gauging value for programs and courses;

The Smart Money:  Designing a school budget to get the most for your school dollar2019-03-27T04:02:05+00:00

Productivity is sometimes seen as a dirty word in education. But it does not have to be.

Marguerite Roza Fall 2015 Productivity is sometimes seen as a dirty word in education. But it does not have to be. In this article author Marguerite Roza discusses how school systems can improve productivity when so much of what matters -- human interactions -- can't be centrally managed of scaled across schools. This article was published by

Productivity is sometimes seen as a dirty word in education. But it does not have to be.2019-04-09T12:18:48+00:00

Breaking tradition: A fixed-dollar pay raise strategy that benefits teachers and school districts

Marguerite Roza November 2015 In this analysis Marguerite Roza examines both the degree to which pay systems for teachers are more heavily back-loaded than for many other professions and the ramifications of this steep salary curve for teachers, states and school districts. She details how teachers and school districts could benefit by switching from doling out raises

Breaking tradition: A fixed-dollar pay raise strategy that benefits teachers and school districts2019-11-21T21:59:04+00:00

Highly Productive Rural Districts: What is the Secret Sauce?

Marguerite Roza and Georgia Heyward September 2015 In this paper authors Marguerite Roza and Georgia Heyward identify some common themes that makes some remote rural districts “productivity superstars” and describe steps states can take to encourage and support district productivity. This paper was published by the Rural Opportunities Consortium of Idaho. Read More

Highly Productive Rural Districts: What is the Secret Sauce?2019-04-08T22:11:25+00:00

How the teacher pay raise formula could worsen Seattle’s inequity

Marguerite Roza September 2015 In this oped Marguerite Roza describes one critical issue underlying the fall 2015 Seattle Public Schools teachers' strike that neither the Seattle School District nor the Seattle Education Association, the teachers’ union, took on: the built-in inequities across schools created by the district’s outdated, traditional pay scale. Read More

How the teacher pay raise formula could worsen Seattle’s inequity2019-04-09T12:27:18+00:00

Promoting Productivity: Lessons from Rural Schools

Marguerite Roza May 2015 In this essay author Marguerite Roza challenges the assumption that rural districts are less productive than their urban or suburban peers by discussing rural districts can “beat the odds” by increasing student results without increasing per-pupil expenditures. Read More

Promoting Productivity: Lessons from Rural Schools2019-04-09T12:33:14+00:00

Turning a Benefits Conundrum into a Potential Opportunity for Teachers and Students

Marguerite Roza April 2015 Teacher benefit costs are rising faster than salaries and new revenues are unlikely to appear. This new analysis by Marguerite Roza shows how a longer work year could increase teachers’ annual salaries and improve student outcomes. This unique solution works best as a flexible option for districts. Read More

Turning a Benefits Conundrum into a Potential Opportunity for Teachers and Students2019-04-09T12:36:09+00:00

Teachers’ Pensions and the Overgrazed Commons

Marguerite Roza and Michael Podgursky March 26, 2015 On March 26, 2015 Governing published this commentary by Marguerite Roza and Michael Podgursky on how big raises to teachers nearing retirement is a recipe for letting pension debt get out of control. Read More

Teachers’ Pensions and the Overgrazed Commons2019-07-01T20:45:03+00:00

Is spending more on education the best way to improve schools and teaching?

Marguerite Roza April 2018 Is spending more on education the best way to improve schools and teaching? Marguerite Roza participated in an online conversation "Room for Debate" hosted by NY Times. Read her response to the question ~ Is spending more on education the best way to improve schools and teaching? (Basically, does more money mean better

Is spending more on education the best way to improve schools and teaching?2019-04-09T12:43:58+00:00

Title I: Time to Get It Right

Marguerite Roza and Robin Lake March 2015 In this brief Marguerite Roza and Robin Lake, Center on Reinventing Public Education, reflect on the goals of Title I and offer five key principles to guide changes to Title I to fulfill its promise to poor students. Read More

Title I: Time to Get It Right2019-04-09T12:50:04+00:00

How to boost teacher pay, raise student performance

Washington, D.C. February 24, 2015 It is possible to increase teacher pay and advance student performance without new resources. A new analysis from the Edunomics Lab at Georgetown University reveals a meaningful and cost-neutral option to improve teacher pay. Read This Release Read this Paper

How to boost teacher pay, raise student performance2019-04-10T12:30:01+00:00

Paying the Best Teachers More to Teach More Students

Marguerite Roza and Amanda Warco February 2015 Research has found that the impact of an effective teacher outweighs the impacts of smaller class sizes. In this analysis authors Marguerite Roza and Amanda Warco find allowing our best teachers to teach more students in lieu of hiring additional staff could offer teachers bonuses as high as $10,357 to

Paying the Best Teachers More to Teach More Students2019-04-11T03:12:43+00:00

Innovation Amid Financial Scarcity: The Opportunity in Rural Schools

Marguerite Roza February 2015 In this paper, published by the Rural Opportunities Consortium of Idaho, Marguerite Roza explores spending and outcomes data of rural schools and highlights policy implications for states seeking improved outcomes for all their districts in the context of limited resources. Read More

Innovation Amid Financial Scarcity: The Opportunity in Rural Schools2019-04-10T12:41:24+00:00

The Phantom Menace: Policies that Protect Districts from Declining or Low Enrollments, Drive Up Spending and Inhibit Adaptation

Jon Fullerton and Marguerite Roza January 2015 In this paper, part of the Productivity for Results Series published by George W. Bush Institute, authors Jon Fullerton and Marguerite Roza examine the curious practice of states funding school districts for students that no longer attend school there. Read More

The Phantom Menace: Policies that Protect Districts from Declining or Low Enrollments, Drive Up Spending and Inhibit Adaptation2019-04-10T12:47:41+00:00

Student Based Allocation 101

This one page infographic details what student based allocation is, how it differs from traditional funding formulas and highlights the primary benefits of this allocation method. Read More

Student Based Allocation 1012019-04-10T12:52:45+00:00

An Easier Fix to Growing Teacher-Pension Debt

Washington, D.C. December 15, 2014 A few critical adjustments to teacher-pay plans would allow states to work toward fully funding their pension plans, and boost pay for newer, younger teachers. Read This Release Read This Paper

An Easier Fix to Growing Teacher-Pension Debt2019-04-10T12:59:15+00:00

How Late-Career Raises Drive Teacher-Pension Debt

Marguerite Roza and Jessica Jonovski December 2014 Teacher salary decisions are often made with little connection to the pension obligations they entail. In this paper, authors Marguerite Roza and Jessica Jonovski model the impacts of late-term raises on teacher pension obligations showing that on average each dollar raise triggers $10 to $16 in new taxpayer obligations. The

How Late-Career Raises Drive Teacher-Pension Debt2019-08-21T20:38:26+00:00

Can decentralization improve Seattle schools?

Marguerite Roza and Jim Simpkins December 2014 In this OpEd Marguerite Roza and Jim Simpkins suggest Seattle Public Schools consider allocation policies similar to many large urban districts that give schools control over how they use district funds to educate their school community. Read More

Can decentralization improve Seattle schools?2019-04-10T21:22:06+00:00

The Real Deal on K-12 Staffing

The Real Deal on K-12 Staffing In the absence of reliable estimates of national K-12 staffing, Jim Simpkins and Marguerite Roza compile data from several national sources to determine historical K – 12 staffing ratios. Their analysis finds that staffing ratios across K-12 education have risen precipitously over several decades and, despite the impact of the Great Recession, remain at

The Real Deal on K-12 Staffing2019-03-06T04:47:37+00:00

Building SEA Productivity

Marguerite Roza July 2014 On July 12 Marguerite Roza presented a session at Council of Chief State School Officers' Summer Institute. In her session Chiefs heard about a basic framework for leading the productivity challenge that includes building a productivity data infrastructure, prioritizing flexibility, aligning funds with students, incentivizing innovation, and leading the change. Read More

Building SEA Productivity2019-04-11T12:30:07+00:00

Denver Public Schools: Making More Money Follow Students

Marguerite Roza and Cory Edmonds June 2014 Denver Public Schools: Making More Money Follow Students In this paper authors Marguerite Roza and Cory Edmonds share how Denver Public Schools has over time steadily increased the amount of district funds deployed through its student based allocation formula. Read More

Denver Public Schools: Making More Money Follow Students2019-04-11T12:34:35+00:00

What Portion of District Funds Follow Students?

Marguerite Roza and Cory Edmonds June 2014 In this paper authors Marguerite Roza and Cory Edmonds examine 12 urban district budgets for FY 2014 to determine the percentage of each district's total resources allocated on the basis of students and discuss the similarities and differences in their student based allocation formulas. Read More View Updated Research

What Portion of District Funds Follow Students?2019-04-11T12:38:56+00:00

Boston Public Schools: Weighting What Matters

Marguerite Roza and Cory Edmonds June 2014 In this paper authors Marguerite Roza and Cory Edmonds share how in recent years, Boston Public Schools detailed student based allocation formula has undergone several revisions both to further refine student categories and to deploy additional portions of the district’s resources. Read More

Boston Public Schools: Weighting What Matters2019-04-11T12:42:18+00:00

A State Information System to Support Improvements in Productivity

Marguerite Roza May 2014 A State Information System to Support Improvements in Productivity In this essay Marguerite Roza discusses the data needed to support districts and schools as they seek new, more productive solutions. Read More

A State Information System to Support Improvements in Productivity2019-04-11T12:50:08+00:00

Funding for Student’s Sake: How to Stop Financing Tomorrow’s Schools Based on Today’s Priorities

Marguerite Roza, Larry Miller (CRPE) and Suzanne Simburg May 2014 In this essay Marguerite partners with Larry Miller (CRPE) and Suzanne Simburg, to discuss how new funding and allocation models can encourage productive local decision making and how states can seize the rare opportunity many now have to redesign their funding allocation models. Read More

Funding for Student’s Sake: How to Stop Financing Tomorrow’s Schools Based on Today’s Priorities2019-09-16T20:00:15+00:00

SEA of the Future: Building the Productivity Infrastructure

Marguerite Roza May 2014 Marguerite Roza authored two essays in this volume of The SEA of the Future. This volume published by BSCP Center introduces the “productivity infrastructure" the building blocks for an SEA committed to supporting productivity, innovation, and performance—from the state chief to the classroom. Read Marguerite's essays: Funding for Student's Sake: How to Stop

SEA of the Future: Building the Productivity Infrastructure2019-04-11T13:04:17+00:00

Webinar: Training Principals for Budgeting at the School Level

Marguerite Roza April On April 8 Marguerite Roza hosted a webinar for district and school leaders to experience training segments used to raise capacity of principals for school level budgeting. Participants experienced a set of activities designed to help school leaders rethink the use of resources for better results with an emphasis placed on how principals can

Webinar: Training Principals for Budgeting at the School Level2019-04-12T02:40:11+00:00

How much money follows the student in WSF (aka SBA) districts?

Cory Edmonds AEFP 2014 In this presentation given at the 39th annual conference of the Association for Education Finance and Policy, Cory Edmonds shared the findings of an Edunomics Lab study exploring seven urban school districts utilizing a student based allocation formula to determine the portion of total district funds allocated by the formula. Read More

How much money follows the student in WSF (aka SBA) districts?2019-04-12T02:55:00+00:00

Rethinking Class Size to Expand Access to Best Teachers and Raise Pay

Suzanne Simburg AEFP 2014 In this presentation given at the 39th annual conference of the Association for Education Finance and Policy Suzanne Simburg shared the findings of an Edunomics Lab study exploring cost neutral options to raise teacher pay and provide more students with access to the best teachers. Read More

Rethinking Class Size to Expand Access to Best Teachers and Raise Pay2019-04-12T02:59:41+00:00

Civic Vitality and Public Education Productivity: The Harbormaster Mayor

Victor Reinoso and Marguerite Roza March 2014   Public schools impact the cultural and material well-being of communities. In this paper authors Victor Reinoso and Marguerite Roza share how mayors can improve the quality-of-life and the economic base in their municipality by finding and promoting productive school models. Read More

Civic Vitality and Public Education Productivity: The Harbormaster Mayor2019-04-12T03:18:41+00:00

Webinar: Building a State Information System to Support Improvements in Productivity

Marguerite Roza February On February 26 Marguerite Roza conducted a webinar for state education agency leaders. This webinar explored how SEAs can build an information system designed to drive productivity – what data are needed, how to compile the data into useful resources for leaders at every level of education and how these stakeholders can use the

Webinar: Building a State Information System to Support Improvements in Productivity2019-04-14T14:40:52+00:00

Taking Off the Heat

Marguerite Roza January 2014 On January 29, 2014 Marguerite Roza shared risks and rewards that emerge when districts “decentralize” engagement around financial decisions to the school level with Portfolio School District Network members in Houston, TX. Read More

Taking Off the Heat2019-04-14T14:48:00+00:00

VisionSBA: K-12 Financial Modeling Tool

VisionSBA: K-12 Financial Modeling Tool VisionSBA provides education leaders with a unique outlook on spending by school level within a district, delivering insight into relative spending across schools adjusted for each school’s actual mix of students. This interactive tool developed by Marguerite Roza and Jim Simpkins answers the question: “How much does each school spend relative to all other schools

VisionSBA: K-12 Financial Modeling Tool2019-03-06T04:47:55+00:00

Options for NY State in an Era of Constrained Resources

Marguerite Roza November 2014 In November 2014 Marguerite Roza presented at a public symposium of the NY Education Reform Commission "Maximizing Resources for Student and School Success". View this Presentation

Options for NY State in an Era of Constrained Resources2019-04-17T19:28:43+00:00

The SEA of the Future: Prioritizing Productivity

Marguerite Roza, Betheny Gross, Ashley Jochim Michael Podgursky and Data Quality Campaign November 2013 Marguerite Roza co-authored two essays in this volume of The SEA of the Future. This volume published by BSCP Center examines how state leaders, challenged with having to make decisions on how to use limited resources are faced with an uneasy zero-sum game:

The SEA of the Future: Prioritizing Productivity2019-04-17T19:42:18+00:00

Teacher Retirement Benefits: Defining a More Active Role for SEAs and Their Chiefs

Marguerite Roza and Michael Podgursky November 2013 In this essay from The SEA of the Future Volume 2, Marguerite Roza and Michael Podgursky draw on their research on productivity and pensions to look in depth at the startling long-term costs of educator pension systems and the counterproductive employment incentives embedded in these systems. Although only state legislatures

Teacher Retirement Benefits: Defining a More Active Role for SEAs and Their Chiefs2019-04-17T19:51:49+00:00

Leveraging Productivity for Progress: An Imperative for States

Marguerite Roza November 2013 In this essay published in The SEA of the Future, Volume 2, author Marguerite Roza makes the case for why productivity is essential to improving outcomes for students. Roza offers officials at state education agencies an action plan toward embedding productivity into everyday decision making. Read More

Leveraging Productivity for Progress: An Imperative for States2019-04-17T19:59:59+00:00

The Case Against High School Sports

Amanda Ripley October 2013 In this article published by The Atlantic author Amanda Ripley, describes the role of high school sports in the American education system, how current resource allocations favor sports over academics and consequences as American students fall behind in international rankings and draws on Marguerite Roza’s research. Read More

The Case Against High School Sports2019-04-17T20:10:18+00:00

Dollars and Sense Accountability

Marguerite Roza July 2013 In July 2013 Marguerite Roza spoke with 23 district leaders, charter organizations and funders at the Portfolio School District Network meeting in Seattle. Using a recent analysis of Minneapolis Public Schools Marguerite discussed how districts could start to view schools in terms of costs and outcomes and using this lens to support the

Dollars and Sense Accountability2019-04-17T20:16:14+00:00

The High Price of Excess Credits

Alicia Kinne, Grant Blume and Marguerite Roza May 2013 This brief by Alicia Kinne, Grant Blume and Marguerite Roza, examines the cost of extra credits earned by students in California, Georgia and New York and opportunities for state and university leaders to maximize degree attainment with constrained resources. Read More

The High Price of Excess Credits2019-04-17T21:47:46+00:00

More Students, More Degrees, More Dollars

Marguerite Roza, Alicia Kinne, Patrick Murphy, and Betheny Gross May 2013 Cuts to state support for higher education have prompted some universities to raise tuition, admit more out-of-state students, and increase enrollment to close budget gaps. This analysis authored by Marguerite Roza, Alicia Kinne, Patrick Murphy, and Betheny Gross compares these three strategies in public flagship universities,

More Students, More Degrees, More Dollars2019-04-17T21:57:02+00:00

Funding Phantom Students

Marguerite Roza and Jon Fullerton Summer 2013 In this brief published by Education Next, authors Marguerite Roza and Jon Fullerton describe a common practice that inhibits both efficiency and productivity: funding students who do not actually attend school in funded districts and how this is often overlooked by state leaders. Read this Report

Funding Phantom Students2019-04-17T22:10:56+00:00

How Current Education Governance Distorts Financial Decisionmaking

Marguerite Roza January 2013 Marguerite Roza authored chapter three of Education Governance for the Twenty-First Century (P. McGuinn and P. Manna, eds). This book comprehensively assesses the strengths and weaknesses of what remains of the old in education governance, scrutinizes how traditional governance forms are changing, and suggests how governing arrangements might be further altered to produce

How Current Education Governance Distorts Financial Decisionmaking2019-04-17T22:16:22+00:00

Student-Based Allocation to Enable School Choice

Student-Based Allocation to Enable School Choice This brief authored by Marguerite Roza and Suzanne Simburg published by Center on Reinventing Public Education explains the need for student-based allocation to enable student choice and portable funding across schools within districts. Read this report

Student-Based Allocation to Enable School Choice2019-03-06T04:47:56+00:00

Innovating Toward Sustainability: How Computer Labs Can Enable New Staffing Structures, and New Savings

Marguerite Roza and Suzanne Simburg December 2012 Using wage and staffing data from states, authors Marguerite Roza and Suzanne Simburg project the financial and staffing implications of one innovative school model (the Rocketship lab rotation) to highlight potential impacts on the schooling workforce and total per-student spending. This Rapid Response brief was published by the Center on

Innovating Toward Sustainability: How Computer Labs Can Enable New Staffing Structures, and New Savings2019-04-20T13:34:57+00:00

Are Residents Losing Their Edge in Public University Admissions? The Case at the University of Washington

Grant Blume and Marguerite Roza December 2012 Public universities across the country are shifting more spots to nonresidents (who pay higher tuitions) in order to plug budget gaps. This Rapid Response brief authored by Grant Blume and Marguerite Roza examines admissions data at the University of Washington in order to in order to quantify the effect on

Are Residents Losing Their Edge in Public University Admissions? The Case at the University of Washington2019-04-20T13:39:46+00:00

What Happens to Teacher Salaries During a Recession?

Marguerite Roza, Suzanne Simburg, Jim Simpkins December 2012 This study by Marguerite Roza, Suzanne Simburg, Jim Simpkins uses data from Seattle Public Schools to explore actual salary changes amidst rapid changes in economic context and the effect of the recession on teacher pay. This Rapid Response brief was published by the Center on Reinventing Public Education.

What Happens to Teacher Salaries During a Recession?2019-04-20T13:46:19+00:00

The Opportunity Cost of Smaller Classes: A State-By-State Spending Analysis

Marguerite Roza and Monica Ouijdani December 2012 Consideration of whether smaller classes are preferable to larger ones requires some recognition of the opportunity costs involved. This brief authored by Marguerite Roza and Monica Ouijdani provides a state-by-state context by computing the dollars at stake in marginally raising the number of students per class. This paper was published

The Opportunity Cost of Smaller Classes: A State-By-State Spending Analysis2019-04-20T13:50:21+00:00

Q&A on the Chicago Teachers Contract Math

Marguerite Roza September 2012 In this Rapid Response brief published by Center on Reinventing Public Education author Marguerite Roza examines the real numbers on the Chicago teachers contract costs. Read More

Q&A on the Chicago Teachers Contract Math2019-04-20T13:54:46+00:00

Chicago Teacher Salaries in the Regional Chicago Context

Marguerite Roza September 2012 In Rapid Response brief published by Center on Reinventing Public Education author Marguerite Roza examines at how Chicago teacher salaries compare in regional and national contexts. Read More

Chicago Teacher Salaries in the Regional Chicago Context2019-04-20T13:58:27+00:00

The Sheepskin Effect and Student Achievement: De-emphasizing the Role of Master’s Degrees in Teacher Compensation

Raegen Miller and Marguerite Roza July 2012 This brief by Raegen Miller and Marguerite Roza dissects the nation’s sizeable investment in master’s bumps as a means of highlighting policy obstacles to a more smartly differentiated compensation approach. The report was published by the Center for American Progress. Read this Paper

The Sheepskin Effect and Student Achievement: De-emphasizing the Role of Master’s Degrees in Teacher Compensation2019-04-21T13:00:03+00:00

Rethinking State Education Finance Toward Greater Productivity

Marguerite Roza Marguerite Roza gave this presentation on November 10, 2011 to members of the National Conference of State Legislatures at "Reallocation of Scarce State Resources: A Seminar for Education Committee Chairs." This presentation framed how state legislators might think differently about their investment in education to maximize scarce state dollars and improve student achievement. View

Rethinking State Education Finance Toward Greater Productivity2019-04-21T13:05:33+00:00

Stretching the School Dollar: A Brief for State Policymakers

Michael J. Petrilli and Marguerite Roza January 2011 This policy brief by Michael J. Petrilli and Marguerite Roza lists fifteen concrete ways that states can “stretch the school dollar” in these difficult financial times. This brief was published by Thomas B. Fordham Institute. Read More

Stretching the School Dollar: A Brief for State Policymakers2019-04-21T13:10:24+00:00

The Promise of Cafeteria-Style Benefits for Districts and Teachers

Noah Wepman, Marguerite Roza and Cristina Sepe December 2010 This brief by Noah Wepman, Marguerite Roza and Cristina Sepe describes how a different method of supplying benefits to employees might work for districts: cafeteria plans. While typical school district plans offer a one-size-fits-all package of benefits to employees, cafeteria plans allow employees to customize their benefits within

The Promise of Cafeteria-Style Benefits for Districts and Teachers2019-04-21T13:14:55+00:00

Washington State High Schools Pay Less for Math and Science Teachers than for Teachers in Other Subjects

Paul Hill and Marguerite Roza This paper published by Center on Reinventing Public Education first explores the past and future outlook for education absent productivity gains. The authors, Paul Hill and Marguerite Roza, then discuss several areas in which labor-intensive businesses have improved productivity: information technology, deregulation, redefinition of the product, increased efficiency in the supply chain,

Washington State High Schools Pay Less for Math and Science Teachers than for Teachers in Other Subjects2019-04-21T13:30:34+00:00

Curing Baumol’s Disease: In Search of Productivity Gains in Public Education

Curing Baumol's Disease: In Search of Productivity Gains in Public Education This paper published by Center on Reinventing Public Education first explores the past and future outlook for education absent productivity gains. The authors, Paul Hill and Marguerite Roza, then discuss several areas in which labor-intensive businesses have improved productivity: information technology, deregulation, redefinition of the product, increased efficiency in

Curing Baumol’s Disease: In Search of Productivity Gains in Public Education2019-03-06T04:48:16+00:00

A False Dilemma: Should decisions about education resource use be made at the state or local level?

Thomas B. Timar and Marguerite Roza May 2010 As states have assumed a greater role in financing education and the assumption of local control has been replaced by systems of state control. This shift in authority raises several critical questions. In this paper published by the American Journal of Education the authors, Thomas B. Timar and Marguerite

A False Dilemma: Should decisions about education resource use be made at the state or local level?2019-04-21T13:36:38+00:00

Breaking Down School Budgets: Following the Dollars into the Classroom

Breaking Down School Budgets: Following the Dollars into the Classroom This analysis by Marguerite Roza published by Education Next in summer 2009 examines ways in which per-pupil spending in high schools varies by subject and course level, and demonstrates how isolating spending on discrete services can 1) identify the relationships between priorities, current spending, and outcomes; 2) clarify both relative

Breaking Down School Budgets: Following the Dollars into the Classroom2019-03-06T04:48:16+00:00

The Disproportionate Impact of Seniority-Based Layoffs on Poor, Minority Students

Cristina Sepe and Marguerite Roza May 2010 Looking at the 15 largest districts in California authors Cristina Sepe and Marguerite Roza, demonstrate that teachers at risk of layoff are concentrated in schools with more poor and minority students, concluding that "last in, first out" policies disproportionately affect the programs and students in their poorer and more minority

The Disproportionate Impact of Seniority-Based Layoffs on Poor, Minority Students2019-04-21T13:41:21+00:00

Educational Economics: Where Do School Funds Go?

Educational Economics: Where Do School Funds Go? This book authored by Marguerite Roza explains how varied funding streams can prevent schools from delivering academic services that mesh with their stated priorities and offers concrete prescriptions for reform. This book is available for purchase at Amazon

Educational Economics: Where Do School Funds Go?2019-03-06T04:48:16+00:00

K–12 Job Trends Amidst Stimulus Funds: Early Findings

K–12 Job Trends Amidst Stimulus Funds: Early Findings This brief by Marguerite Roza, Chris Lozier and Cristina Sepe explores trends in K–12 education jobs—those funded through the stimulus and by other means—to answer the question of what role ARRA played in overall education employment. This Rapid Response brief was published by Center on Reinventing Public Education. Read this report

K–12 Job Trends Amidst Stimulus Funds: Early Findings2019-03-06T04:48:16+00:00

Beyond Teacher Reassignments: Better Ways Districts Can Remedy Salary Inequities Across Schools

Beyond Teacher Reassignments: Better Ways Districts Can Remedy Salary Inequities Across Schools This Rapid Response brief by Marguerite Roza and Sarah Yatsko demonstrates how, contrary to common worry, closing Title I's "comparability provision" loophole would not force districts to mandatorily reassign teachers. This paper was published by Center on Reinventing Public Education. Read this report

Beyond Teacher Reassignments: Better Ways Districts Can Remedy Salary Inequities Across Schools2019-03-06T04:48:16+00:00

Have States Disproportionately Cut Education Budgets During ARRA? Early Findings

Have States Disproportionately Cut Education Budgets During ARRA? Early Findings This analysis by Marguerite Roza and Susan Funk explores how state education spending has changed or will change given the application of the State Fiscal Stabilization Fund. This Rapid Response brief was published by Center on Reinventing Public Education. Read this report

Have States Disproportionately Cut Education Budgets During ARRA? Early Findings2019-03-06T04:48:16+00:00

Now is a Great Time to Compute the Per-Unit Cost of Everything in Education

Now is a Great Time to Compute the Per-Unit Cost of Everything in Education This paper by Marguerite Roza examines how calculating the per unit costs of what schools or districts can deliver can provide the best insight into the implications of all that spending. This paper was prepared for the American Enterprise Institute and Thomas B. Fordham Institute conference,

Now is a Great Time to Compute the Per-Unit Cost of Everything in Education2019-03-06T04:48:16+00:00

Seniority-Based Layoffs Will Exacerbate Job Loss in Public Education

Marguerite Roza February 2009 In this Rapid Response brief, published by Center on Reinventing Public Education, Marguerite Roza details why K-12 school districts that lay off personnel according to seniority cause disproportionate damage to their programs and students than if layoffs were determined on a seniority-neutral basis. Button Text

Seniority-Based Layoffs Will Exacerbate Job Loss in Public Education2019-04-21T13:48:15+00:00

What is the Sum of the Parts?

What is the Sum of the Parts? How Federal, State, and District Funding Streams Confound Efforts to Address Different Student Types This report by Marguerite Roza, Kacey Guin, and Tricia Davis demonstrates in greater detail than ever before how America’s methods of school finance work against a single-minded focus on student learning. This paper was published by Center on Reinventing

What is the Sum of the Parts?2019-03-06T04:48:16+00:00

Understanding Student-Weighted Allocation as a Means to Greater School Resource Equity

Karen Hawley Miles and Marguerite Roza December 2006 This article by Karen Hawley Miles and Marguerite Roza examines how the shift to student-weighted allocation affected the pattern of resource distribution within 2 districts: the Houston Independent School District and Cincinnati Public Schools. This study published in Peabody Journal of Education provides evidence that student-weighted allocation can be

Understanding Student-Weighted Allocation as a Means to Greater School Resource Equity2019-10-02T19:41:17+00:00

How Districts Shortchange Low-Income and Minority Students

Marguerite Roza 2006 This article by Marguerite Roza appeared in Funding Gaps 2006, a report published by Education Trust. The full report documents how school finance policy choices at the federal, state, and district levels systematically stack the deck against students who need the most support from their schools. Dr. Roza's analysis demonstrates that, despite district bookkeeping

How Districts Shortchange Low-Income and Minority Students2019-04-21T14:04:34+00:00

Pennywise and Pound Foolish in Education

Marguerite Roza and Paul Hill Published September 2004 in Public Administration Times This article written by Marguerite Roza and Paul Hill provides an overview of school funding. With the understanding that no one exactly knows how money for schools is spent and who receives the money, the authors suggest that weighed student funding would show exactly

Pennywise and Pound Foolish in Education2019-12-12T19:53:35+00:00

A Cost Allocation Model for Shared District Resources: A Means for Comparing Spending Across Schools

Lawrence J. Miller, Marguerite Roza, and Claudine Swartz September 2004 Recent policy changes at the state and federal level have made schools the focus of accountability. However, under current budgeting practices, it is difficult to assess how resources are distributed between schools and whether every school is afforded the same opportunities to meet its educational goals.

A Cost Allocation Model for Shared District Resources: A Means for Comparing Spending Across Schools2019-12-12T19:29:01+00:00

Leveling the Playing Field: Creating Funding Equity Through Student-Based Budgeting

Karen Hawley Miles, Kathleen Ware, and Marguerite Roza Published October 2003 in Phi Delta Kappa International When Cincinnati Public Schools devised a reform strategy for improving student performance, it became clear that the district's traditional budgeting system was inadequate. This report, published by The Phi Delta Kappa, traces the district's process of moving to a system

Leveling the Playing Field: Creating Funding Equity Through Student-Based Budgeting2019-12-12T19:21:53+00:00